General Life Cycles
Life cycles of arthropods involve a series of structural changes known as metamorphoses, the actual sequence of which varies with different parasite groups. Complete metamorphosis begins when adults lay eggs from which larvae hatch. (Figure 1A).
The larval forms grow and shed their skins, or moult, …
This disease is inflammation or infection of the lungs. There are many causes of pneumonia including viruses, bacteria, fungal agents, mycoplasmas, parasites, irritant dust and fumes and aspiration of liquids. The specific cause of pneumonia is not easily determined and requires diagnostic help in consultation with a veterinarian. The ultimate cause may be a combination of factors. Management problems such as overcrowding, poor ventilation and inadequate nutrition as sometimes to blame.
Signs: Some of the common signs of …