Ringworm

 

 

Ringworm is a fungal disease, caused by one of four species. It is transmitted by direct or indirect contact with contaminated equipment or environment. The fungi invade the skin and hair fibers. Breaks in the hair and hair loss occur due to the breakdown of the hair shaft. Young goats or goats housed in dark damp barns as well as those …

Vitamin A

 

 

Signs of vitamin A deficiency include poor appetite, weight loss, unthrifty appearance with a poor hair coat, night blindness and a thick nasal discharge. Vitamin A deficiency also makes the animal more susceptible to respiratory, diarrhea and parasitic problems. It may also lead to reproductive inefficiency and urinary problems.

Control: Control includes 2,000 kg International Units per day for a …

Salt

 

 

Goats that lack sodium may lick dirt and show reduced growth and feed intake as well as reduced milk production. Sodium chloride can be provided free choice or mixed with the feed at 0.5-percent of the complete ration of dry matter. Either blocks or loose salt can be used. Salt is important for maintaining adequate water intake for hot summer days …

Phosphorus

 

 

Phosphorus is required for both soft tissue and bone growth. Clinical signs of a deficiency include slowed growth for abnormal substance and unthrifty appearance. The calcium/phosphorus ratio should not be less than 1.2:1 for does and 2:1 for males. Grazing goats rarely develop a phosphorus deficiency due to their browsing phosphorus rich plants. Appropriate attention to calcium/phosphorus ratio is important to …

Goat Parasites Phase 1

During Phase 1, the parasite has to develop and survive in the host. After ingestion, infective larvae lose their protective sheath and invade the mucosa, or lining of the abomasum, small intestine or large intestine, depending on which worm species is involved. While in the mucosa, larvae develop to the next larval stage and then return to the surface of the gut mucosa where they become adult worms.

The goat’s major defense mechanism against parasites is his or her immune …

Goat Parasites Phase 2

During Phase 2, eggs are deposited on the pasture though the goats’ feces. The extent of pasture contamination during Phase 2 is affected mainly by stocking rate, or the number of animals per grazing area; age of the animals, season of the year and hypobiosis. It is also strongly affected by the species of worm because the females of some worm species such as barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) lay far more eggs than other species.

The higher …

Goat Parasites Phase 3

Development and survival of the free-living stages during Phase 3 depends on prevailing environmental (temperature and moisture) and nutritional (oxygen and energy) conditions. In most worm species, the first stage larvae initially develop in the egg and then hatch into first-stage larvae.  Development and survival to second-stage and finally third-stage (infective) larvae occurs within the fecal mass. The first- and second-stage larvae are unprotected and need oxygen and energy to grow. They feed on bacteria within the fecal pellet. However, …